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"There is no Spoon": Towards a Framework for the Classification of Virtual Brands and Management of Brand Precession

Laurent Muzellec

Theo Lynn
This paper considers the case of two fictional brands (‘Duff Beer’ and ‘Bertie Bott’s Every Flavor Beans’) and one computer-synthesized brand (‘Aimee Weber’) and the attachment of these brands to physical products in the real and virtual worlds. The authors contend these cases are not merely manifestations of the "reverse product placement" process but are representative of a wider phenomenon, labelled “brand precession”. The three cases illustrate three orders of brand precession. In the first two orders, the virtual brands foment an aura in the fictional world, which will be leveraged through “tangibilisation” or “productisation” in the real world. In the third order of brand precession (Aimee Weber), commercial translation of the computer synthesised brand is not necessarily dependent on a physical existence in the real world. The authors contend that should such brands be capable of legal protection, the implications for marketing practitioners and researchers may be profound. The paper provides an embryonic classification and framework for the management and the articulation of virtual brands.



The Adoption of Peer-to-Peer Networks and the Structure of Entertainment Markets: The Example of Music in Europe

Francesco Sandulli
This study explores the existence of different P2P adoption rates across countries. Focusing on the supply side of the entertainment markets, the paper analyses the relationship between concentration in the music industry and the P2P rate adoption. Using country-level panel data, the research finds empirical evidence supporting an inverse relationship between P2P adoption and music market concentration in Europe. Therefore, P2P networks and online distribution of music and other entertainment products may be more valuable to music consumers in fragmented markets.



Network Effects - Managerial Implications and Recent Trends in the Empirical Literature

Daniel Birke
Network effects, the increase in value of consuming a product if many other consumers use the same product, are a feature of many markets and in particular of many markets of high-technology products. This paper discusses managerial implications of network effects. It further introduces some recent insights gained from the analysis of how consumers interact with each other in a social network. The paper argues that a closer analysis of the network structure of consumer interaction promises fruitful future research avenues and advances in our understanding of how network effects operate.



Virgin Galactic: Crafting a Blue Ocean Strategy in Space

Bharat Rao
Space tourism refers to the concept of paying customers traveling into space, it is also labeled as “personal spaceflight” or public space travel. Inaccessible to the common man for decades, space tourism finally became a reality in April 2001 when American businessman Dennis Tito paid US $20M to fly to space. Today, a number of competitors are vying to be in pole position as the space tourism market looks like taking off. In this case document, we describe the broad trends in the suborbital space tourism market, and examine the motivations and payoffs for those seeking fun and adventure in space. In particular, we look at the emergent strategy of one of the major consumer-oriented players in the market, Virgin Galactic.



Making the Dream Happen: Unifying Marketing and Operations Management

Nevan Wright

Reinhard Huenerberg
This article aims at overcoming the separation of Marketing and Operations Management, two classic management disciplines usually polarized in academic studies and in practice. Two examples – customer satisfaction and multi-channel use, as well as a case study indicate the way this can be done. The authors draw material from research in progress which will result in a new textbook developing a number of ideas on the marketing-operations interface and an overall optimization.



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